Sunday, 6 November 2016

How Super is a "Supermoon"?



How Super is a “Supermoon”?

99% Waning Gibbous Moon 1st August 2015 by Mary McIntyre
(1 day before Perigee)

On 14th November we will be treated to a perigee Full Moon, or as the press like to call it, a “Supermoon”.  The press are already in meltdown over this upcoming event and we still have over a week to go! 


So what exactly is a supermoon?  Our Moon orbits Earth every 27 days, but that orbit isn’t exactly circular; it orbits in a slightly elliptical shape.  So this means that once every 27 days, the Moon is further away than usual and once every 27 days it is closer than usual.  This means that the exact distance between us and Moon can vary by as much as approximately 43,500km. This sounds a lot, but when you consider that the average distance to the Moon is approximately 384,400km, 43,500km suddenly doesn’t seem like such a big difference. For information about the distance to the Moon, take a look at this great Universe Today article: http://www.universetoday.com/103206/what-is-the-distance-to-the-moon/
 

The correct name for the point when the Moon is at its closest to Earth is perigee and the when it at its furthest away, it is called apogee. The exact point of perigee or apogee can occur at different times in the lunar cycle, so they don’t always coincide with a Full Moon.  If we get a Full Moon on the night of perigee, then people sometimes refer to it as a supermoon. If we get a Full Moon on the night of apogee, then it sometimes called a micromoon (although the press don’t often make a big deal about that one). The term “supermoon” is one that I personally try to avoid using because it was coined by the astrology community, and has no basis in astronomy!

So what does it mean for us when we have a “supermoon”? If you believe the hype, you will expecting great things on 14th November! That night, the Moon will be the closest it’s been at perigee since 1948. Yes, the Moon will be bigger and brighter, but will the difference really be that noticeable?  The perigee Moon is approximate 14% bigger than an apogee Moon, and around 30% brighter. Again, this does sound like an impressive difference. But if you actually look at the relative size of the Moon compared to the rest of the sky, you realise that the Moon itself is actually quite a lot smaller than you probably realise. Astronomers divide the sky up into degrees as a way of measuring apparent distances between objects. If you look at the horizon and turn around in a full circle, you will have moved through 360 degrees of sky.  The Full Moon only covers 0.5 degrees of the sky, so relative to the background, the Moon is actually really small. You can see from the wide field photo below that I took of the Moon rising, that the Moon itself looks tiny compared to the rest of the sky; yes, that tiny white dot is the Moon.  Looking at this picture, would you honestly be able to notice a 14% difference in size of the Moon? If you can, then you’ll have better eye sight than me! The actual size difference is shown in the image below this panoramic shot.






The actual size difference of a perigee Full Moon compared to a normal Full Moon
Source: Wikipedia




We are bombarded by amazing photos of the Moon taken with telescopes or long camera lenses, so we begin to get a slightly warped perspective about the actual size of the Moon.  But that isn’t the whole story.  I get annoyed by press articles which give reader unrealistic expectations of an astronomical event.  Yes, it’s great to get people to go out and look for things, but I hate the idea that they will go out and be disappointed. But one really great thing that happens when people hear about a supermoon is that they go outside and look for the Moon rising.  A Full Moon rises in the east as the Sun sets in the west, so it is really easy to spot it. Every time we’ve been told about a supermoon, I have had people tell me they went out to watch moonrise and thought the Moon looked huge as it was rising. Yes it probably did, but that isn’t because it’s a supermoon.  It is actually due to something called the “Moon Illusion”.
 
It is a commonly held misconception that the Moon is larger as it rises and it gets smaller as it climbs higher in the sky. In fact, it stays exactly the same size, no matter where it is in the sky. If you want to test this, take a small coin outside with you at moonrise, hold it out at arm’s length and measure the relative size of the coin against the Moon. Then repeat this a few hours later, and you will see that the Moon size hasn’t changed. So why does it look so big when it’s rising? The exact reason for this has been fiercely debated for many years.  


The times that the Moon looks the largest during moonrise, is when there is another object nearby to give it scale. For example, look at the two photos below which I’ve taken of the Moon rising behind distant trees.  Let’s imagine that the trees are 300 metres away. We all know how big a tree is when we stand underneath one.  A tree in the distance looks smaller, but our brains trick us because we know how big they are up close. So when you have the Moon rising behind the tree, it gives the impression that if we were to be standing close to the tree, the Moon would still keep its relative size.  But given that the Moon is about 384,400km, walking 300 metres closer isn’t going to make much difference!  The same principle applies if you see the Moon rising behind distant buildings.  







Once again, photos add to the whole illusion. There are an incredibly large number of fake moonrise photos on the internet.  It is very easy to create lovely pieces of digital art with image editing software, by dropping a nice close up photo of the Moon into the background of another photo. Some of them look realistic but others are so out of scale that they look ridiculous. However, there are also some gorgeous, genuine moonrise photos. One of my favourites was the subject of Astronomy Picture of The Day on 10th March 2012. It shows the Moon rising behind the Lick Observatory in California on 7th March. ( https://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap120310.html ) 

 APOD 10th March 2012


This photo makes the Moon look absolutely huge! It was shot with a long lens from a distance and this creates a really stunning effect which is the same as the Moon Illusion.  However, the Moon Illusion isn’t something that is restricted to a perigee moonrise. Every day that you see the Moon rising or setting, if you have a distant object for perspective, then it will look larger than it does when it is higher in the sky.


Anything that makes people go out and observe an astronomy event is great, but I do get extremely frustrated with the radically exaggerated claims that many press articles make.  I really hope that every one of you reading this will go out and watch the perigee Moon rising on 14th November (weather permitting!) But I also hope that you will do the same thing on many other nights and realise that the Moon is gorgeous and worth observing every night of the year, not just during a supermoon.





Saturday, 7 May 2016

How To Observe The Mercury Transit Using Projection Methods



HOW TO OBSERVE THE MERCURY TRANSIT SAFELY USING PROJECTION METHODS

On Monday 9th May, Mercury will transit the Sun. The entire transit event will last around 7 and a half hours. It begins at 12:12pm BST and ends at 7:42pm BST.  During this event, Mercury will be visible as a tiny, round black spot which slowly moves across the disc of the Sun.  It will be darker in colour than any sunspots which may be visible on Monday. Mercury will be so small that you will not be able to observe it with eclipse glasses. You will need large binoculars or a telescope, fitted with a white light solar filter.  If you have left it too late to get hold of a solar filter and want to safely observe the transit, then don’t panic! You can safely observe the event using a projection method. 

SAFETY NOTICE: NEVER EVER ATTEMPT TO LOOK AT THE SUN EITHER DIRECTLY, OR THROUGH BINOCULARS OR A TELESCOPE WITHOUT THE CORRECT EQUIPMENT. YOU WILL GO BLIND! DO NOT UNDER ANY CIRCUMSTANCES TRY TO USE ECLIPSE GLASSES WITH BINOCULARS OR A TELESCOPE; THE MAGNIFICATION OF THE SUN WILL BURN STRAIGHT THROUGH THE GLASSES AND CAUSE PERMANENT DAMAGE TO YOUR EYES. IF YOU ARE USING A TELECOPE, MAKE SURE YOU KEEP THE CAPS ON THE FINDERSCOPE. EVEN THAT LOW MAGNIFICATION IS ENOUGH TO BURN YOUR EYES AND CAUSE PERMANENT DAMAGE.


Telescope Projection Method:
First of all, you need a piece of white card, or white paper glued onto a piece or card, or a piece of white board. This will be your projection board. If you can, try to find a way of mounting it onto a tripod or broom handle so it is free standing. It will help you greatly later on if it can stand up by itself.

Begin by lining up your telescope with the Sun.  Place your projection board behind the eye piece to help you get things lined up properly. If you are using a refractor, your projection board will be behind the telescope, but if you are using a reflector it will be at the side. When everything is in place, you will see a large bright disc on your projection board. Adjust the focus on your telescope until the disc is nice and sharp. You should easily be able to see any sunspots which are currently visible. During the eclipse, you will see the tiny black dot that is Mercury passing across the disc. If you want to take a photograph of the projection on the white board, it is safe to do so. Do not try to take a photography by holding your camera up to the eye piece - it will burn your camera sensor!









Binocular projection method:
Begin by placing your projection board facing the Sun. Point your binoculars at the Sun and angle them until you see 2 bright discs on your projection board. Adjust the focus of the binoculars until you get nice sharp discs. As with the telescope projection, you may be able to see sunspots using this method. During the transit, you will see Mercury as a tiny dot moving across the Sun. Once again, if you wish to photograph the image on the projection board, it is safe to do so, but you may need an extra pair of hands to hold everything in place if you don’t have a tripod for your binoculars!



 
I hope this blog helps you to observe Monday’s transit event safely. If you have any doubts then please do not take any chances with your eyes. There are lots of local astronomy societies who are doing outreach events on Monday, so find one of those and observe it safely with them. Now we just have to hope that we get some clear skies. Good luck and happy observing!